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For example, band A was visibly apparent only in arctic soil DGGE fingerprints. Analysis of between 1,487 and 2,659 ribosomal sequence tags (RSTs) from each sample, with a total of 12,850 RSTs, provided the basis for robust estimates of phylotype richness and composition. Ecology and physiological potential of tundra soil bacteria. 2009) Fungi. For each soil, subsamples were sieved (5 mm) and an equal portion (by weight) was added from each to form a composite, which was thoroughly mixed. Received 2004 Dec 14; Accepted 2005 May 5. (B) UPGMA dendrograms showing Bray-Curtis similarity indices for phylogenetic divisions (Divisions), RST distributions (RSTs), and Pearson correlations of DGGE fingerprint patterns (DGGE). Alternatively, the uniqueness may be because the Cape Dyer composite was generated from samples taken from a greater depth (surface to 100 cm) than the other surface soil composites. 261–265. (A) Relative abundance of phylogenetic divisions for each soil library in which RST sequences were assigned to the same taxonomic group as the closest relative in the RDP-II database. 1B and C). However, complete database representation for ubiquitous RSTs and only partial representation of the uniquely distributed RSTs (Table 2) provided additional support for the ubiquitous and limited distributions of certain phylotypes observed in this study. Perturbation has been associated previously with reduced microbial biodiversity (1) and may be the cause of this sample's uniqueness. RST library analysis indicated a positive correlation between diversity and latitude, contrary to the latitudinal biodiversity gradient observed for most biodiversity on earth (38). RST frequency histogram for the six soil composites. Dozens of people were hospitalized, and a 12-year-old boy died. RST data from the Nadluarjuk Lake site (FOX-B) were previously published as a duplicate library to confirm the reproducibility of SARST (30) and are included in this report for the purpose of comparison. for Narrow Hills and Peace River, respectively. A sample from a disturbed arctic site was also characterized, in which the soil was compacted during construction of a pad supporting a fuel storage tank. Subsamples were kept at 4°C for transport back to the laboratory and were used immediately or frozen at −80°C. (B) Rarefaction curves. (A) Relative abundance of phylogenetic divisions for each soil library in which RST sequences were assigned to the same taxonomic group as the closest relative in the RDP-II database. Singletons, doubletons, and predominant RSTs are indicated within the graph area for convenience. Subtraction of the Bray-Curtis similarities from 100% provided a dissimilarity matrix for creating dendrograms (unweighted-pair group method using average linkages [UPGMA]) using the neighbor-joining program of the Phylip package (11). NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. Linker oligonucleotides were ligated to each end of the RSTs, and RST-linker molecules were purified with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Depth has been associated with lower microbial diversity in soil environments (40), which is attributable to higher water saturation. Similar high diversity was observed for Wisconsin agricultural soil (4) and a tropical forest soil (5). Fingerprint band D also provided clear sequence data and was stored in GenBank with accession numbers {"type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":{"text":"AY847703","term_id":"56967448","term_text":"AY847703"}}AY847703 and {"type":"entrez-nucleotide","attrs":{"text":"AY847704","term_id":"56967449","term_text":"AY847704"}}AY847704 for Narrow Hills and Peace River, respectively. Roadways built on top of permafrost have becoming wavy roller coasters through the tundra. Sample locations are Alert (AL), Nadluardjuk Lake (NL), Cape Dyer (CD), Montmorency (MM), Narrow Hills (NH), and Peace River (PR). Another possibility is that the relatively great bacterial diversity of tundra soils may largely reflect allochthonous organisms having low metabolic activity and little functional significance in the soil systems, an example of which is viable mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria isolated from cold soil environments (25, 27). Roadways built on top of permafrost have becoming wavy roller coasters through the tundra. Band D was pronounced in the Narrow Hills and Peace River samples, and the sequences from these samples possessed a single nucleotide mismatch to band B across the ∼400-bp sequences. Further, one of the libraries (Nadluardjuk Lake) was a previously published duplicate soil library (30), and high correlation between the duplicates indicated that RST libraries were reproducible. DGGE.Using primers 63f-GC and 518r and 5 ng extracted soil DNA as the template in each reaction, PCR and DGGE were done as described previously (24) with minor modifications. We investigated the occurrence of resin acid-degrading bacteria on the Arctic tundra near the northern coast of Ellesmere Island (82°N, 62°W). Furthermore, DNA reassociation analysis from a variety of soils indicated that genetic diversity in high arctic tundra was similar to that in temperate soils (31). For equivalent subsamples from undisturbed soils, the Chao1 richness estimates were positively correlated with latitude (r = 0.94; P = 0.017 [n = 5]). There are many fungal organisms with unique properties in the tundra to deal with temperature stress. This ability will help guide culture-based identification of ecologically important, endemic organisms. Because RSTs can be used for designing phylotype-specific PCR primers (30), more phylogenetic information (a larger portion of the 16S rRNA gene sequence) can be obtained for selected RSTs. 3B). Chao1 95% confidence intervals and Bray-Curtis similarity indices (6) were calculated using formulas formatted for compatibility with clone libraries (18). All symbols correspond to sources of libraries as shown in panel A. These phylotypes potentially represent populations endemic to their respective biomes. Even though they are plentiful in the biome, they are not as active as in other places due to the extreme temperatures. The dominant bacterial community of the tundra heath soil (initial community determined from T 0 samples) was comprised largely of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes (Fig. Many lichens can … (C) Chao1 richness estimates. In particular, arctic tundra soil is poorly studied, and its microbial communities are commonly assumed to be species poor (15, 17). PCR (25 cycles) amplified a ∼490-bp fragment and was carried out in a PTC-100 thermocycler (MJ Research, Waltham, MA). The sequence obtained from this band corresponds to an RST found only in the arctic soil RST libraries. These sample sizes are too small to adequately describe and compare multiple microbial communities containing thousands of species (19), such as those found in pristine soil and sediment samples (21, 36). All soils, associated letter codes, and measured soil properties are indicated in Table 1. The influence of soil pH on bacterial diversity is unknown, but this may have been a factor contributing to lower bacterial diversity observed in the forest libraries. The … This study identified tundra soil bacteria active at subzero temperatures using stable isotope probing (SIP). Thus, similar topographical features of these dendrograms indicated agreement between the analyses. The ePub format is best viewed in the iBooks reader. enteric bacteria in nature in a tundra area in southwestern Alaska, was conducted in the vicinity of the Eskimo village of Napaskiak. As this is the first substantial investigation of arctic tundra soil microbial diversity, further research is needed to confirm the observations reported here. In order to make comparisons of RST library diversity and composition, RSTs from all libraries were clustered by similarity using SARSTgrouper (http://www.microbiology.ubc.ca/Mohn/SARST). Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA. In Proceedings IV International Meeting on the Biological Productivity of Tundra, Leningrad, USSR (F. E. Wielgolaski and Th.

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2020-12-02T15:12:41+00:00

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