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PHAEDO: And do we know the nature of this absolute essence? And which alternative, Simmias, do you prefer? But if so, whenever the strings of the body are unduly loosened or overstrained through disease or other injury, then the soul, though most divine, like other harmonies of music or of works of art, of course perishes at once, although the material remains of the body may last for a considerable time, until they are either decayed or burnt. Again, would you not be cautious of affirming that the addition of one to one, or the division of one, is the cause of two? So we remained behind, talking and thinking of the subject of discourse, and also of the greatness of our sorrow; he was like a father of whom we were being bereaved, and we were about to pass the rest of our lives as orphans. Then turning to us, he said, How charming the man is: since I have been in prison he has always been coming to see me, and at times he would talk to me, and was as good to me as could be, and now see how generously he sorrows on my account. And what would you say of the many beautiful—whether men or horses or garments or any other things which are named by the same names and may be called equal or beautiful,—are they all unchanging and the same always, or quite the reverse? And now, as you bid me, I will venture to question you, and then I shall not have to reproach myself hereafter with not having said at the time what I think. What is this ship? As I was saying, the ship was crowned on the day before the trial, and this was the reason why Socrates lay in prison and was not put to death until long after he was condemned. Then one soul not being more or less absolutely a soul than another, is not more or less harmonized? Simmias, if I remember rightly, has fears and misgivings whether the soul, although a fairer and diviner thing than the body, being as she is in the form of harmony, may not perish first. Yes, said Cebes, I think so. Please then to do as I say, and not to refuse me. Moreover, if you succeed in convincing us, that will be an answer to the charge against yourself. As I proceeded, I found my philosopher altogether forsaking mind or any other principle of order, but having recourse to air, and ether, and water, and other eccentricities. Yes, Socrates, I suppose that they will, I replied. But because they are sacred to Apollo, they have the gift of prophecy, and anticipate the good things of another world, wherefore they sing and rejoice in that day more than they ever did before. By no means. And I would ask you to be thinking of the truth and not of Socrates: agree with me, if I seem to you to be speaking the truth; or if not, withstand me might and main, that I may not deceive you as well as myself in my enthusiasm, and like the bee, leave my sting in you before I die. Such are those thick and gloomy shadows damp We should like you to do so, said Simmias. I summon you rather, I rejoined, not as Heracles summoning Iolaus, but as Iolaus might summon Heracles. And therefore, previously? Are they equals in the same sense in which absolute equality is equal? And those who appear to have lived neither well nor ill, go to the river Acheron, and embarking in any vessels which they may find, are carried in them to the lake, and there they dwell and are purified of their evil deeds, and having suffered the penalty of the wrongs which they have done to others, they are absolved, and receive the rewards of their good deeds, each of them according to his deserts. Socrates, Apollodorus, Page 3/14. From the senses then is derived the knowledge that all sensible things aim at an absolute equality of which they fall short? Yes, Echecrates, I was. And thought is best when the mind is gathered into herself and none of these things trouble her—neither sounds nor sights nor pain nor any pleasure,—when she takes leave of the body, and has as little as possible to do with it, when she has no bodily sense or desire, but is aspiring after true being? I think that he is, said Simmias. This version of Plato's Phaedo contains the unabridged text in pdf format. Yes, Socrates; I am convinced that there is precisely the same necessity for the one as for the other; and the argument retreats successfully to the position that the existence of the soul before birth cannot be separated from the existence of the essence of which you speak. There is no escape, Socrates, said Cebes; and to me your argument seems to be absolutely true. Very true, he said. We must do as he says, Crito; and therefore let the cup be brought, if the poison is prepared: if not, let the attendant prepare some. Return to life. ECHECRATES: Echecrates: Were you there in prison yourself, Phaedo, on the day when Socrates drank the poison or did you hear of it from someone else? For he will have a firm conviction that there and there only, he can find wisdom in her purity. And is this true of all opposites? That is very likely, Socrates. Still I suspect that you and Simmias would be glad to probe the argument further. And can all this be true, think you? And what did you think, he said, of that part of the argument in which we said that knowledge was recollection, and hence inferred that the soul must have previously existed somewhere else before she was enclosed in the body? Indeed, I should, said Cebes, laughing. There I feel with you—by heaven I do, Phaedo, and when you were speaking, I was beginning to ask myself the same question: What argument can I ever trust again? And to which class is the soul more nearly alike and akin, as far as may be inferred from this argument, as well as from the preceding one? And therefore has neither more nor less of discord, nor yet of harmony? A man of sense ought not to say, nor will I be very confident, that the description which I have given of the soul and her mansions is exactly true. And the body is more like the changing? No; there were several of them with him. Which of them will you retain? And there is a swinging or see-saw in the interior of the earth which moves all this up and down, and is due to the following cause:—There is a chasm which is the vastest of them all, and pierces right through the whole earth; this is that chasm which Homer describes in the words,— Is not forgetting, Simmias, just the losing of knowledge? Upon this Cebes said: I am glad, Socrates, that you have mentioned the name of Aesop. But, rejoined Socrates, you will have to think differently, my Theban friend, if you still maintain that harmony is a compound, and that the soul is a harmony which is made out of strings set in the frame of the body; for you will surely never allow yourself to say that a harmony is prior to the elements which compose it. 0 (0 Reviews) ... You can also read the full text online using our ereader. (Compare Milton, Comus:— Certainly, he replied. What did he say in his last hours? Then before we began to see or hear or perceive in any way, we must have had a knowledge of absolute equality, or we could not have referred to that standard the equals which are derived from the senses?—for to that they all aspire, and of that they fall short. Reading of the dialogue that combines both dramatic and doctrinal approaches (does not include text of the Phaedo). Yes. Very good, Socrates, said Simmias; then I will tell you my difficulty, and Cebes will tell you his. They must be always the same, Socrates, replied Cebes. I can only say in answer—the living. Well, he said, then I should like to know whether you agree with me in the next step; for I cannot help thinking, if there be anything beautiful other than absolute beauty should there be such, that it can be beautiful only in as far as it partakes of absolute beauty—and I should say the same of everything. Would you not say that he is entirely concerned with the soul and not with the body? This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation But you do not observe that there is a difference in the two cases. And I rather imagine that Cebes is referring to you; he thinks that you are too ready to leave us, and too ready to leave the gods whom you acknowledge to be our good masters. No, Socrates, I perceive that I was unconsciously talking nonsense. Available Indexes Full-text Catalog. Do you agree? Is not the separation and release of the soul from the body their especial study? I mean, he replied, as you might say of the very large and very small, that nothing is more uncommon than a very large or very small man; and this applies generally to all extremes, whether of great and small, or swift and slow, or fair and foul, or black and white: and whether the instances you select be men or dogs or anything else, few are the extremes, but many are in the mean between them. And, further, is not one part of us body, another part soul? Were you yourself, Phaedo, in the prison with Socrates on the day when he drank the poison? Then if a person were to remark that A is taller by a head than B, and B less by a head than A, you would refuse to admit his statement, and would stoutly contend that what you mean is only that the greater is greater by, and by reason of, greatness, and the less is less only by, and by reason of, smallness; and thus you would avoid the danger of saying that the greater is greater and the less less by the measure of the head, which is the same in both, and would also avoid the monstrous absurdity of supposing that the greater man is greater by reason of the head, which is small. ECHECRATES: or do they fall short of this perfect equality in a measure? 2. The Phaedo is one of Plato’s middle period dialogues and, as such, reveals much of Plato’s own philosophy. Quite true. Yes, he said, Cebes, it is and must be so, in my opinion; and we have not been deluded in making these admissions; but I am confident that there truly is such a thing as living again, and that the living spring from the dead, and that the souls of the dead are in existence, and that the good souls have a better portion than the evil. ECHECRATES: PHAEDO Phaedo, known to the ancients also by the descriptive title On the Soul, is a drama about Socrates' last hours and his death in the jail at Athens. And on this oddness, of which the number three has the impress, the opposite idea will never intrude? No, they were said to be in Aegina. And did we not see and hear and have the use of our other senses as soon as we were born? Do you agree? But what followed? Cope. Certainly, replied Cebes. Phaedo; translated by E.M. endobj Plato symposium full text pdf Literally translated by Seth Benardete. Then, Cebes, beyond question, the soul is immortal and imperishable, and our souls will truly exist in another world! Search Field List. I may describe to you, however, the form and regions of the earth according to my conception of them. Note : the numbers in parentheses represent the approximate number of full lines of text in each section or subsection, in the Greek text of the Budé edition. Album Phaedrus. The seen is the changing, and the unseen is the unchanging? The main characters of this classics, non fiction story are , . Most certainly. I cannot tell, replied Simmias; but I suppose that something of the sort would be asserted by those who say that the soul is a harmony. The Phaedo is a key source for Platonic metaphysics and for Plato's conception of the human soul. Phaedo by Plato Phaedo (Full Text) Lyrics PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Phaedo, who is the narrator of the dialogue to Echecrates of Phlius. And these you can touch and see and perceive with the senses, but the unchanging things you can only perceive with the mind—they are invisible and are not seen? That is also true. And I thought that I had better have recourse to the world of mind and seek there the truth of existence. Be quiet, then, and have patience. Plato – Phaedo (Full Text) | Genius PHAEDO: It is the ship in which, according to Athenian tradition, Theseus went to Crete when he took with him the fourteen youths, and was the saviour of them and of himself. PHAEDO: And what is it? Very true, said Cebes. Phaedo. Are they not, as the poets are always telling us, inaccurate witnesses? But I had not the pleasure which I usually feel in philosophical discourse (for philosophy was the theme of which we spoke). Now I will ask you to consider whether the objection, which, like Simmias, I will express in a figure, is of any weight. Yes, Phaedo, he replied, and how melancholy, if there be such a thing as truth or certainty or possibility of knowledge—that a man should have lighted upon some argument or other which at first seemed true and then turned out to be false, and instead of blaming himself and his own want of wit, because he is annoyed, should at last be too glad to transfer the blame from himself to arguments in general: and for ever afterwards should hate and revile them, and lose truth and the knowledge of realities. I mean what I may illustrate by the following instance:—The knowledge of a lyre is not the same as the knowledge of a man? And they are right, Simmias, in thinking so, with the exception of the words ‘they have found them out’; for they have not found out either what is the nature of that death which the true philosopher deserves, or how he deserves or desires death. The book has been awarded with , and many others. Certainly not. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. Will you not allow that I have as much of the spirit of prophecy in me as the swans? The analogy which I will adduce is that of an old weaver, who dies, and after his death somebody says:—He is not dead, he must be alive;—see, there is the coat which he himself wove and wore, and which remains whole and undecayed. Then when does the soul attain truth?—for in attempting to consider anything in company with the body she is obviously deceived. And, as I was saying at first, there would be a ridiculous contradiction in men studying to live as nearly as they can in a state of death, and yet repining when it comes upon them. And if any one maintains that the soul, being the harmony of the elements of the body, is first to perish in that which is called death, how shall we answer him? And now, he said, let us begin again; and do not you answer my question in the words in which I ask it: let me have not the old safe answer of which I spoke at first, but another equally safe, of which the truth will be inferred by you from what has been just said. For that which, being in equipoise, is in the centre of that which is equably diffused, will not incline any way in any degree, but will always remain in the same state and not deviate. Then he, or any man who has the spirit of philosophy, will be willing to die, but he will not take his own life, for that is held to be unlawful. Gender: Male Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Philosopher. For I am quite ready to admit, Simmias and Cebes, that I ought to be grieved at death, if I were not persuaded in the first place that I am going to other gods who are wise and good (of which I am as certain as I can be of any such matters), and secondly (though I am not so sure of this last) to men departed, better than those whom I leave behind; and therefore I do not grieve as I might have done, for I have good hope that there is yet something remaining for the dead, and as has been said of old, some far better thing for the good than for the evil. Had we the knowledge at our birth, or did we recollect the things which we knew previously to our birth? And thus one man makes a vortex all round and steadies the earth by the heaven; another gives the air as a support to the earth, which is a sort of broad trough. FREE DOWNLOAD!The Phaedo is one of the most widely read dialogues written by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. And those who have chosen the portion of injustice, and tyranny, and violence, will pass into wolves, or into hawks and kites;—whither else can we suppose them to go? Do you not agree with me? And yet how can you reconcile this seemingly true belief that God is our guardian and we his possessions, with the willingness to die which we were just now attributing to the philosopher? Free download or read online Phaedo pdf (ePUB) book. For the truth is, that the weaver aforesaid, having woven and worn many such coats, outlived several of them, and was outlived by the last; but a man is not therefore proved to be slighter and weaker than a coat. Simmias said: I must confess, Socrates, that doubts did arise in our minds, and each of us was urging and inciting the other to put the question which we wanted to have answered and which neither of us liked to ask, fearing that our importunity might be troublesome under present at such a time.          By unchaste looks, loose gestures, and foul talk, University of Toronto Press, 1982. And shall we proceed a step further, and affirm that there is such a thing as equality, not of one piece of wood or stone with another, but that, over and above this, there is absolute equality? In the course of my life I have often had intimations in dreams ‘that I should compose music.’ The same dream came to me sometimes in one form, and sometimes in another, but always saying the same or nearly the same words: ‘Cultivate and make music,’ said the dream. Clearly. And if we acquired this knowledge before we were born, and were born having the use of it, then we also knew before we were born and at the instant of birth not only the equal or the greater or the less, but all other ideas; for we are not speaking only of equality, but of beauty, goodness, justice, holiness, and of all which we stamp with the name of essence in the dialectical process, both when we ask and when we answer questions. The unmusical, he said, and the unjust. Fair is the prize, and the hope great! Very true. And here let me recapitulate—for there is no harm in repetition. Why are they the happiest? That soul, I say, herself invisible, departs to the invisible world—to the divine and immortal and rational: thither arriving, she is secure of bliss and is released from the error and folly of men, their fears and wild passions and all other human ills, and for ever dwells, as they say of the initiated, in company with the gods (compare Apol.). That is well and truly said, Socrates, he replied. And that principle which repels the musical, or the just? �ʘ��t���{UY�w��� �#HYB����,����p;}�uL��\E. Featuring Benjamin Jowett. Thus much, said Socrates, of Harmonia, your Theban goddess, who has graciously yielded to us; but what shall I say, Cebes, to her husband Cadmus, and how shall I make peace with him? To return then to my distinction of natures which are not opposed, and yet do not admit opposites—as, in the instance given, three, although not opposed to the even, does not any the more admit of the even, but always brings the opposite into play on the other side; or as two does not receive the odd, or fire the cold—from these examples (and there are many more of them) perhaps you may be able to arrive at the general conclusion, that not only opposites will not receive opposites, but also that nothing which brings the opposite will admit the opposite of that which it brings, in that to which it is brought. The immortal, he said. Note : the numbers in parentheses represent the approximate number of full lines of text in each section or subsection, in the Greek text of the Budé edition. Yes, Socrates, I quite think so.          And linked itself by carnal sensuality Then, said Socrates, let him mind his business and be prepared to give the poison twice or even thrice if necessary; that is all. No. True. Then whatever the soul possesses, to that she comes bearing life? Book Excerpt. But that proof, Simmias and Cebes, has been already given, said Socrates, if you put the two arguments together—I mean this and the former one, in which we admitted that everything living is born of the dead. But then, O my friends, he said, if the soul is really immortal, what care should be taken of her, not only in respect of the portion of time which is called life, but of eternity! Return to top. That, replied Cebes, is quite my notion. When he came out, he sat down with us again after his bath, but not much was said. PHAEDO: No, Socrates, that would not become them, said Cebes. What was the reason of this? Download full-text PDF Read full-text. Phaedo (Grube, Second Edition) Phaedo (Grube, Second Edition) Plato Translated by G. M. A. Grube. Now these rivers are many, and mighty, and diverse, and there are four principal ones, of which the greatest and outermost is that called Oceanus, which flows round the earth in a circle; and in the opposite direction flows Acheron, which passes under the earth through desert places into the Acherusian lake: this is the lake to the shores of which the souls of the many go when they are dead, and after waiting an appointed time, which is to some a longer and to some a shorter time, they are sent back to be born again as animals. And he attains to the purest knowledge of them who goes to each with the mind alone, not introducing or intruding in the act of thought sight or any other sense together with reason, but with the very light of the mind in her own clearness searches into the very truth of each; he who has got rid, as far as he can, of eyes and ears and, so to speak, of the whole body, these being in his opinion distracting elements which when they infect the soul hinder her from acquiring truth and knowledge—who, if not he, is likely to attain the knowledge of true being? True. The wise and orderly soul follows in the straight path and is conscious of her surroundings; but the soul which desires the body, and which, as I was relating before, has long been fluttering about the lifeless frame and the world of sight, is after many struggles and many sufferings hardly and with violence carried away by her attendant genius, and when she arrives at the place where the other souls are gathered, if she be impure and have done impure deeds, whether foul murders or other crimes which are the brothers of these, and the works of brothers in crime—from that soul every one flees and turns away; no one will be her companion, no one her guide, but alone she wanders in extremity of evil until certain times are fulfilled, and when they are fulfilled, she is borne irresistibly to her own fitting habitation; as every pure and just soul which has passed through life in the company and under the guidance of the gods has also her own proper home.

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