4 and the statistical parameters of P < 0.05. Compilations of deep sea benthic foraminifer oxygen isotopes have revealed the long history of global climate change over the past 100 million years. For example, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized with lower temperature, higher altitude, and the greatest PAR, while the basin (mostly located in Sichuan province) receives the lowest light resource. 2019;665:171–80. [35] calculated and spatialized PAR using data simulation method [82] based on three climatic datasets, i.e., daily sunshine duration data at 740 weather stations across China for 1961–2007 and global radiation data at 122 radiation stations across China for 1961–2000 from China Meteorological Administration, and PAR observatory data at 36 field stations across China for 2004–2007 from Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. Effects of selected factors on diatom community using canonical correspondence analysis. PubMed Central  Mitrovic SM, Chessman BC, Davie A, Avery EL, Ryan N. Development of blooms of Cyclotella meneghiniana and Nitzschia spp. 2018;33:355–80. Finally, a total of 4573 unique sequences were retained in our reference database. Planktonic vs Nektonic - What's the difference? Spatially, the annual-averaged PAR exhibits four stages along the Yangtze River [35], i.e., the highest in the upper reach located in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region (above 32 mol m−2 d−1), the higher in the reach located in the Hengduan Mountains, the lowest in the reach located in the Sichuan Basin (below 23 mol m− d−1), and the moderate in the lower reach (Fig. These phenomena further explain the local interactions in terms of light, temperature, and nutrient competition [45]. [13] provided a new estimate of diversity and distribution of marine planktonic diatoms based on the V9 region of eukaryotic 18S rDNA. Comparing the numerous studies of diatoms and eutrophication in oceans [14, 15] and lakes [16, 17] to date, it is clear that the present understanding of diatoms is relatively poor for lotic and oligotrophic rivers [7]. It remains a practical challenge to examine the effects of environmental selection and spatial dispersal on determining algae communities in river ecosystems. Diatom ecological guilds display distinct and predictable behavior along nutrient and disturbance gradients in running waters. B-Béres V, Lukács Á, Török P, Kókai Z, Novák Z, T-Krasznai E, et al. Spearman relationships between diatoms and dissolved carbon dioxide. Please add askdifference.com to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software. Biogeographical distribution of ecological guilds throughout the mainstream of the Yangtze River. 32, No. 2004;89:139–50. The lowest value of TN:TP in water samples was obtained in river reaches receiving large inflow from the Min River, and the highest value was obtained in both water and sediment samples near river estuary. Effect of nitrogen/phosphorus concentration on algal organic matter generation of the diatom Nitzschia palea: total indicators and spectroscopic characterization. 4c). [68]. PubMed  Synchronous water and sediment sampling along the Yangtze River makes it possible to compare the biogeography of planktonic and benthic diatoms. 1980;37:130–7. Planktonic Cymatopleura and Navicula, and benthic Asterionella, Biddulphia, Diatoma, and Encyonema genera preferred to high PAR conditions. These sea-surface dwellers evolved faster than most of their benthic counterparts making them more suitable as biostratigraphic markers. b Representative diatoms genera in different landform types from the river source to mouth along the Yangtze River. Rarefaction curves (Additional file 1: Figure S1) together with high values of Good’s coverage ranging from 0.9854 to 0.9992 illustrated that OTUs obtained by the current sequencing depth gave a reasonable representation of the diatom communities. 2012;13:222–31. 2014;84:287–302. reported the importance of both environment and dispersal-related processes in controlling planktonic diatom community structure in stream and rivers, Sweden [26]. Google Scholar. 2016;23:21008–19. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. Gray lines denote ordinary least squares linear regression fits across all samples. 4, pp. Air bubbles drawn in with the sample were eliminated by tapping and draining water while the syringe is pointing upwards. 4c). Mann DG, Droop SJM. Agric For Meteorol. We've detected that you are using AdBlock Plus or some other adblocking software which is preventing the page from fully loading. This disperse ability is a key adaptation of benthic marine invertebrates. Science. An assessment of potential diatom “Barcode” genes (cox1, rbcL, 18S and ITS rDNA) and their effectiveness in determining relationships in Sellaphora (Bacillariophyta). Water (Switzerland). Heino J, Bini LM, Karjalainen SM, Mykrä H, Soininen J, Vieira LCG, et al. Zhu et al. At each sampling site, 10 L of well-mixed water was collected and then filtered onto 0.22 μm polycarbonate membranes (Millipore, USA) within 24 h. Filter membranes and sediment samples were stored in the laboratory at – 80 °C until further analysis took place. Han L, Xu B, Qi F, Chen Z. In the Yangtze River, such interactions have several consequences. Malviya S, Scalco E, Audic S, Vincent F, Veluchamy A, Poulain J, et al. 2009;636:137–51. Genome Biol. 2012;406:01. Borcard D, Legendre P. All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices. Planktonic foraminifera account for only around 50 species of 10,000 species around today. Benthic (bottom-dwelling) foraminifera also use their pseudopodia for locomotion. Ecological background of diatom functional groups: comparability of classification systems. Meanwhile, environmental drivers of diatom communities were interpreted in terms of photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, channel slope, and nutrient conditions under varying landforms. Solar radiation with wavelengths (400–700 nm), called photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), is able to be utilized by plants and algae through photosynthesis to convert light energy into biomass [34]. Water Res. J Geogr Sci. [23] observed that both planktonic and periphytic diatoms could be used as bio-indicators of river conditions, little is known about the distinction between planktonic and benthic diatoms regarding their spatiotemporal distributions. Introducing MOTHUR: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton. Planktonic forams appeared ~200 million years ago. Meanwhile, the weak seasonal difference of diatom communities in sediment may be ascribed to the majority of benthic diatoms (Additional file 1: Figure S6) that weakly respond to seasonal changes and reached a state of relative equilibrium through long-term sediment erosion and deposition processes [30]. The triplicate DNA extracts were mixed together for later PCR amplification. PubMed  2002;57:47–54 (in Chinese). Sci Total Environ. Article  Nat Rev Microbiol. 3c). Finally, the CO2 partial pressure was measured using a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. The influence of organisms on the composition of seawater. 2016;7:1474. Similar findings have also been reported recently on bacterial communities. In view of their relative abundance, planktonic diatoms were characterized by Psammothidium, Nitzschia, and Cymbella for steep slope environments, Papiliocellulus for moderate slope, Mayamaea, Pinnularia, and Surirella for mild slope environments. Obvious difference in species composition was observed in planktonic and benthic diatoms. As adjectives the difference between planktonic and benthic is that planktonic is of or pertaining to plankton while benthic is pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Planktonic diatoms were dominated by Coscinodiscophyceae (about 43.76% of the total number of sequences) and Mediophyceae (17.91%), while benthic diatoms were dominated by Bacillariophyceae (54.88%) and Coscinodiscophyceae (30.96%) (Additional file 1: Figure S8). [18] investigated the community structure of benthic diatoms in the Dong River, one of the three main tributaries of the Pearl River, China. 835 Motueka Integrated Catchment Management Programme Report Series: Benthic and planktonic microalgae in Tasman Bay June 2003 … Moreover, water temperature is a key environmental factor in structuring diatom community assemblages through its influence on diatom size and growth rate [37] in the Yangtze River (Additional file 1: Table S3). 40, Chemical ecology in aquatic systems, Guest Editors: Francesca Gherardi & Roberto Berti, pp. Field investigation on river hydrochemical characteristics and larval and juvenile fish in the source region of the Yangtze River. The spatial distribution of TN:TP in water and sediment samples varied in different sampling stations. Google Scholar. Cookies policy. Ann Arbor, Michigan; 1983. Forams are lumped into two groups: benthic foraminifera that live on the sea floor, and planktonic foraminifera that live suspended in the water column. Partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA) was performed to decompose the total variation in diatom community into a pure environmental component, a pure spatial component, a spatially structured environmental component, and residual variation. In general, the varying channel slope along the Yangtze River could be simplified into three stages, steep slope in mountainous reaches, moderate slope in upper reaches, and mild slope in middle-lower reaches (Fig. Furthermore, slope effects on diatoms might be identified in terms of ecological guilds. In the Yangtze River, diatoms mainly consisted of Coscinodiscophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Mediophycea. Diatom Res. 2013;69:47–57. Then, PAR along the Yangtze River could be further derived. Moreover, Chen et al. Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Second, the richness of planktonic diatoms appeared to fluctuate with PAR, whereas the richness of benthic diatoms tended to change with … Planktonic GPP increased with nutrients status, whereas benthic GPP decreased. PubMed Central  Protist. Field CB, Behrenfeld MJ, Randerson JT, Falkowski P. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling diagram of Bray-Curtis dissimilarities between diatom communities for all samples. Orange and blue circles display the average alpha-diversity (Chao1) of planktonic and benthic diatoms respectively in different photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) regions, and their sizes correspond to the Chao1 index (c). 3c). Protist. From shore to 10 m depth, autotrophic structure shifted from planktonic dominance near the mouth of the Fox River (95% planktonic) to a mix of benthic and planktonic GPP 35 km from the mouth of the Fox (∼40% benthic). Dissolved CO2 was extracted by transferring 25 ml of ultra-high purity nitrogen at the field sites and then equilibrated with the headspace in the sample syringe by vigorous shake for 5 min. 4A). Graf WL. Spatial factors contribute to benthic diatom structure in streams across spatial scales: considerations for biomonitoring. FastTree 2 - approximately maximum-likelihood trees for large alignments. Furthermore, a number of indicator species belonging to Tabellariales and Hemiaulales occurred in water-plateau and sediment-plateau samples, respectively. (Bacillariophyceae) in a shallow river and estimation of effective suppression flows. Google Scholar. Adaptor was ligated onto the amplicons for the library construction. Benthic diatoms in the motile guild prevailed at most stations along the whole river, whereas those in high-profile and planktic guilds dominated upstream and downstream reaches, respectively. Flowchart of the study. Planktonic is an antonym of benthic. Namely, as river channel deepens, the number of planktonic diatoms from detached benthic algae and benthic diatoms from sinking planktonic algae will reduce, resulting a dominant position of primary production by planktonic algae [45]. Phycologia. Damming has been shown to cause various changes in hydraulic conditions [48,49,50], such as sediment erosion, deepening river channel, coarse riverbed, and high-suspended particles, which makes the downstream sediments become a habitat with limited light, difficult to adhere, and unsuitable for benthic diatoms to thrive (Additional file 1: Figure S15). Rimet F. Benthic diatom assemblages and their correspondence with ecoregional classifications: case study of rivers in North-Eastern France. Monteith JL. Furthermore, the monitored TN:TP was significantly related to community composition of diatoms in both water and sediment (P < 0.05, Additional file 1: Table S3). Then, the selected OTUs were checked by means of the phylogenetic tree, and only OTUs with correct taxonomical assignment were retained for further analysis. Kheiri S, Solak CN, Edlund MB, Spaulding S, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, et al. Of these, 40 species are planktonic, that is they float in the water. Google Scholar. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. Privacy Monteith reported the linear correlation between net primary production (NPP) and PAR absorbed by green foliage [81]. Distance-decay relationships between community similarity and geographic distance for water (a) and sediment (b) samples. 2001;41:77–91. Phylogenetic distribution of reference sequence and abundant OTUs. Our study revealed that benthic diatoms represented by motile species in ecological guilds are typical consequences driven by environmental selection in a lotic-oligotrophic river, which highlights the particular importance of benthic diatoms in understanding biogeochemical cycles in world’s large river ecosystems. Jinren Ni. PCR mixtures (20 μL volume) were prepared in triplicate contained 2 μL of 10 × buffer, 2 μL of 2.5 mM dNTPs, 0.8 μL of each primer (5 μM), 0.2 μL of rTaq polymerase, 0.2 μL of BSA, and 1 μL of 10 ng DNA sample. NMDS and ANOSIM statistics were carried out using the vegan package in R. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) [36] was used with Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests to discover high-dimensional biomarker and explain taxa difference at different environment conditions of PAR or channel slope. Berthon V, Bouchez A, Rimet F. Using diatom life-forms and ecological guilds to assess organic pollution and trophic level in rivers: a case study of rivers in south-eastern France. PLoS One. Figure S14. Similarly, different colored ribbons of different width for each sample type describe the distribution of different genera. 2015;755:89–105. Planktic/planktonic, nektic/nektonic, benthic/benthonic - Volume 65 Issue 2 - Cesare Emiliani Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Article  Figure S13. In the upper reaches (stations 3~14), the channel slope has dropped sharply to 10–30 × 10−5. Zimmermann J, Glöckner G, Jahn R, Enke N, Gemeinholzer B. Metabarcoding vs. morphological identification to assess diatom diversity in environmental studies. statement and Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of the compositional dissimilarities between diatom communities demonstrated not only a clear spatial differentiation in diatoms between the plateau and the main body of the Yangtze, but also a division between planktonic and benthic groups (Additional file 1: Figure S4). 2015;49:7597–605. Only the dominant genus with a mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in all samples is depicted. Visco JA, Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil L, Cordonier A, Esling P, Pillet L, Pawlowski J. Benthic (adjective) Pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Gillett N, Pan Y, Parker C. Should only live diatoms be used in the bioassessment of small mountain streams? To identify taxonomically OTUs obtained in this study against known diatom species, the BLASTN [75] program was applied to align clean 18S rRNA reads to the corrected diatom database. Elizabeth Gilbert Talk, Bdo Carrack Blue Gear Guide, Most Powerful 12 Gauge Slug, One Love Organics Kit, Dewalt Dcht860m1 40v Max, Its A 10 Miracle Leave-in Plus Keratin Vs Regular, Sony Portable Blu-ray Player, "/>

Diatoms play a particularly important role in the biogeochemical cycle [1] of primary elements such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica, contributing about 20–25% of global primary production [2]. Comparison of three spatial interpolation methods for climate variables in China. ISME J. To close the above gap, we implemented large-scaled synchronous monitoring of diatom communities at 62 hydrologic stations over a 6030 km continuum of the Yangtze River in China. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Diatoms were divided into four ecological guilds according to their biological traits, including low-profile, high-profile, motile, and planktic guilds in terms of different responses to nutrients and dynamic disturbances [31,32,33] (see “Ecological guilds classification” section). Alpha diversity indices (chao1, Shannon, and Goods coverage) were calculated using QIIME. A total of 24 sampling stations and around 5,700 specimens of foraminifera were recognized on thin-section analysis and classified into two major categories: planktonic and benthic. Hydrobiologia. Ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphate. of, pertaining to, or occurring at the bottom of a body of water, especially referring to the ocean depths. Chen et al. Figure S10. There are several major classifications of plankton. CAS  PubMed Google Scholar. Microbiome Source for information on Plankton and Planktonic Bacteria: World of … Zhu X, He H, Liu M, Yu G, Sun X, Gao Y. Spatio-temporal variation of photosynthetically active radiation in China in recent 50 years. Cawthron Report No. First, we extracted all diatom sequences of 18S rRNA reads from GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). 1997;153:91–7. In fact, previous reports on the dynamics of riverine diatoms have mostly focused on tributaries, small rivers, reaches, stations, and estuaries [18,19,20]. 2001;46:2008–18. Limnol Oceanogr. Smucker NJ, Vis ML. Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation. 2009;75:7537–41. The Yangtze River flows through a variety of landforms such as plateau, mountain, foothill, basin, foothill-mountain, and plain regions along the river continuum [30]. Nat Methods. Figure S5. 1996;336:19–32. 2003;300:958–61. PubMed  The local interactions could cause benthic and planktonic habitats to become coupled through migration of algal cells, meaning that phytoplankton can be derived from benthic diatoms, and sinking planktonic algae can become benthic algae . planktonic vs. benthic microeukaryotes in intertidal zones. Typical benthic diatoms, such as Pinnularia, Paralia, and Aulacoseira, experienced considerable reduction in relative abundance downstream of the Three Gorges Dam and the Xiluodu Dam, two of the world’s largest dams. Science. There are an estimated 4,000 species living in the world's oceans today. Kelly MG. Use of the trophic diatom index to monitor eutrophication in rivers. The channel slope dramatically changes along the Yangtze River, primarily due to the basis of geology, climate and geomorphology. 2014;50:335–46. Spatial dispersal and environmental selection processes are regarded as essential drivers for the biogeographical pattern of bacterial community [25]. Article  2010;20:803–17. The partial Mantel test demonstrated that both geographical and environmental distances played important roles in constraining diatom composition and distribution (Additional file 1: Table S2). PubMed Central  Our study generated a total of 8,602,620 V4 18S rDNA reads from 279 samples. Both the planktonic bacterial community (PBC) and benthic bacterial community (BBC) are important for biogeochemical processes in freshwater lakes. Lake and Reservoir Management: Vol. First, the community composition of planktonic community was significantly correlated with that of benthic diatoms in paired water and sediment samples (in spring: Spearman r = 0.3556, P = 0.001; in autumn: Spearman r = 0.1902, P = 0.006). CAS  Indicator values were calculated based on the relative frequency and relative average abundance of a given species in six types of environmental samples. Google Scholar. Morphological analysis requires extensive taxonomic expertise and may exhibit shortcomings in characterizing specific diatoms in rivers [8]. 2016;47:175–86. Foraminifera are often described as being ‘benthic’ – living close to the sediment-water interface, or ‘planktonic’ – living within the water column. Price MN, Dehal PS, Arkin AP. The former promotes movement of species and their establishment at a new location, whereas the latter alters the abundance and composition of species, according to the ability to survive and reproduce under local environmental conditions. Other factors affecting interactions, such as river velocity, turbulent diffusion, algal sinking, and grazing remain to be further investigated [51]. Second, as a primary driver of stream power that shapes the spatial distribution of diatoms, the channel slope not only affects competitive and succession processes among species but also alters nutritional utilization strategies and hence the production and growth of diatoms [59], leading to diatoms preferring to different flow conditions [60]. Figure S1. 169-181. Thus, we define four zones of PAR intensity in different regions across the Yangtze River basin as follows: Complete datasets supporting the findings of this article are in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database (Accession Number: SRP153344). CAS  Front. Nat Geosci. Tréguer P, Bowler C, Moriceau B, Dutkiewicz S, Gehlen M, Aumont O, et al. Article  Planktonic vs benthic ecology. Planktonic cyanobacteria blooms are not confined to lakes nor are benthic mats confined to rivers, but this is where we most often see them. Google Scholar. A mesoscale iron enrichment in the western subarctic pacific induces a large centric diatom bloom. 2010;5:e9490. Huang Z, Liu Y, Zhao W, Zhao L. Discussion on recent spatial-temporal distribution of water quality in Changjiang River source area. Second, the richness of planktonic diatoms appeared to fluctuate with PAR, whereas the richness of benthic diatoms tended to change with temperature. Significance testing was then assessed using the “permutest” function based on 999 permutations in R, while canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed to determine the effects of selected environmental and spatial variables on diatom communities (Additional file 1: Table S3). Anammox response to natural and anthropogenic impacts over the Yangtze River. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm) is utilized by diatoms to synthesize biomass through photosynthesis [34]. XZ and YL contributed new ideas and information. First, they are both single-celled creatures. Science. • Unlike the planktons and benthos, nekton can propel themselves either by swimming or other means. Moniz MBJ, Kaczmarska I. Barcoding of diatoms: nuclear encoded ITS revisited. ANOSIM statistics concerning differences in diatom communities within and between sample types. [20] investigated planktonic diatoms dominated by physical constraints at two stations of the River Adige, Italy. Planktotrophic larvae feed on phytoplankton and small zooplankton, including other larvae. The number of indicator diatom species in the river ranged from 6 (sediment-spring) to 41 (water-plateau). The width of ribbons for each diatoms is directly proportional to their relative abundance in each sample type. Ward JV, Stanford JA. For a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of both planktonic and benthic diatom communities, LefSe analysis was used considering its advantages in identifying differentially abundant taxa under different environmental conditions [36]. Kunz MJ, Wüest A, Wehrli B, Landert J, Senn DB. In fact, other environmental factors such as hydrodynamic condition, light, temperature, and biological predation may also play considerable roles over the full year. 2018;442:66–78. Dili Xuebao/Acta Geogr Sin. Plankton and planktonic bacteria Plankton and planktonic bacteria share two features. The word "plankton " comes from a German word meaning "drifters. Planktotrophic development is the most common type of larval development, especially among benthic invertebrates. Third, the weak relationship between annual-averaged TN:TP and alpha-diversity of planktonic diatoms along the Yangtze River might be resulted from the selection of simpler indicator for nutrient level in a relatively oligotrophic river (Additional file 1: Figure S14). Both planktonic and benthic species are sensitive to changes in food availability as well as physical environmental parameters, such as salinity and temperature. Oikos. 2006;4:102–12. Hydrobiologia. WHERE DO THEY LIVE? CAS  The average relative abundance of indicator species in the source area exceeded 40%, and planktonic indicator species contributed more reads than benthic indicator species. concluded that local environmental factors were even more important than spatial factors in explaining benthic diatom distributions in boreal streams, Finland [28]. 2013;446:67–75. As a result, the most widespread and diverse diatom genera are derived from 46 marine stations. Kitner M, Poulíčková A. Littoral diatoms as indicators for the eutrophication of shallow lakes. J Yangtze River Sci Res Inst. 2012;10:497–506. Biogeography studies aim to reveal the spatial and temporal distribution of biodiversity and provide insight into the mechanisms that generate and sustain diversity [24]. All of the authors contributed to interpretation of the findings and approved the final version of the manuscript. For sediment samples, we utilized TN and TP to calculate monitored TN:TP observed at 50 stations for 2014. Amplicons were purified using the AxyPrep DNA Gel Extraction Kit (Axygen Bioscience, Union City, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and quantified using QuantiFluorTM-ST (Promega, USA). Diatom species that characterize each sample group were identified with indicator species analysis using labdsv and indval packages in R software [77]. 1998;32:236–42. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. The LEfSe biomarker detection was performed in QIIME [71] using the logarithmic LDA threshold > 4 and the statistical parameters of P < 0.05. Compilations of deep sea benthic foraminifer oxygen isotopes have revealed the long history of global climate change over the past 100 million years. For example, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized with lower temperature, higher altitude, and the greatest PAR, while the basin (mostly located in Sichuan province) receives the lowest light resource. 2019;665:171–80. [35] calculated and spatialized PAR using data simulation method [82] based on three climatic datasets, i.e., daily sunshine duration data at 740 weather stations across China for 1961–2007 and global radiation data at 122 radiation stations across China for 1961–2000 from China Meteorological Administration, and PAR observatory data at 36 field stations across China for 2004–2007 from Chinese Ecosystem Research Network. Effects of selected factors on diatom community using canonical correspondence analysis. PubMed Central  Mitrovic SM, Chessman BC, Davie A, Avery EL, Ryan N. Development of blooms of Cyclotella meneghiniana and Nitzschia spp. 2018;33:355–80. Finally, a total of 4573 unique sequences were retained in our reference database. Planktonic vs Nektonic - What's the difference? Spatially, the annual-averaged PAR exhibits four stages along the Yangtze River [35], i.e., the highest in the upper reach located in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region (above 32 mol m−2 d−1), the higher in the reach located in the Hengduan Mountains, the lowest in the reach located in the Sichuan Basin (below 23 mol m− d−1), and the moderate in the lower reach (Fig. These phenomena further explain the local interactions in terms of light, temperature, and nutrient competition [45]. [13] provided a new estimate of diversity and distribution of marine planktonic diatoms based on the V9 region of eukaryotic 18S rDNA. Comparing the numerous studies of diatoms and eutrophication in oceans [14, 15] and lakes [16, 17] to date, it is clear that the present understanding of diatoms is relatively poor for lotic and oligotrophic rivers [7]. It remains a practical challenge to examine the effects of environmental selection and spatial dispersal on determining algae communities in river ecosystems. Diatom ecological guilds display distinct and predictable behavior along nutrient and disturbance gradients in running waters. B-Béres V, Lukács Á, Török P, Kókai Z, Novák Z, T-Krasznai E, et al. Spearman relationships between diatoms and dissolved carbon dioxide. Please add askdifference.com to your ad blocking whitelist or disable your adblocking software. Biogeographical distribution of ecological guilds throughout the mainstream of the Yangtze River. 32, No. 2004;89:139–50. The lowest value of TN:TP in water samples was obtained in river reaches receiving large inflow from the Min River, and the highest value was obtained in both water and sediment samples near river estuary. Effect of nitrogen/phosphorus concentration on algal organic matter generation of the diatom Nitzschia palea: total indicators and spectroscopic characterization. 4c). [68]. PubMed  Synchronous water and sediment sampling along the Yangtze River makes it possible to compare the biogeography of planktonic and benthic diatoms. 1980;37:130–7. Planktonic Cymatopleura and Navicula, and benthic Asterionella, Biddulphia, Diatoma, and Encyonema genera preferred to high PAR conditions. These sea-surface dwellers evolved faster than most of their benthic counterparts making them more suitable as biostratigraphic markers. b Representative diatoms genera in different landform types from the river source to mouth along the Yangtze River. Rarefaction curves (Additional file 1: Figure S1) together with high values of Good’s coverage ranging from 0.9854 to 0.9992 illustrated that OTUs obtained by the current sequencing depth gave a reasonable representation of the diatom communities. 2012;13:222–31. 2014;84:287–302. reported the importance of both environment and dispersal-related processes in controlling planktonic diatom community structure in stream and rivers, Sweden [26]. Google Scholar. 2016;23:21008–19. Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, et al. Gray lines denote ordinary least squares linear regression fits across all samples. 4, pp. Air bubbles drawn in with the sample were eliminated by tapping and draining water while the syringe is pointing upwards. 4c). Mann DG, Droop SJM. Agric For Meteorol. We've detected that you are using AdBlock Plus or some other adblocking software which is preventing the page from fully loading. This disperse ability is a key adaptation of benthic marine invertebrates. Science. An assessment of potential diatom “Barcode” genes (cox1, rbcL, 18S and ITS rDNA) and their effectiveness in determining relationships in Sellaphora (Bacillariophyta). Water (Switzerland). Heino J, Bini LM, Karjalainen SM, Mykrä H, Soininen J, Vieira LCG, et al. Zhu et al. At each sampling site, 10 L of well-mixed water was collected and then filtered onto 0.22 μm polycarbonate membranes (Millipore, USA) within 24 h. Filter membranes and sediment samples were stored in the laboratory at – 80 °C until further analysis took place. Han L, Xu B, Qi F, Chen Z. In the Yangtze River, such interactions have several consequences. Malviya S, Scalco E, Audic S, Vincent F, Veluchamy A, Poulain J, et al. 2009;636:137–51. Genome Biol. 2012;406:01. Borcard D, Legendre P. All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices. Planktonic foraminifera account for only around 50 species of 10,000 species around today. Benthic (bottom-dwelling) foraminifera also use their pseudopodia for locomotion. Ecological background of diatom functional groups: comparability of classification systems. Meanwhile, environmental drivers of diatom communities were interpreted in terms of photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, channel slope, and nutrient conditions under varying landforms. Solar radiation with wavelengths (400–700 nm), called photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), is able to be utilized by plants and algae through photosynthesis to convert light energy into biomass [34]. Water Res. J Geogr Sci. [23] observed that both planktonic and periphytic diatoms could be used as bio-indicators of river conditions, little is known about the distinction between planktonic and benthic diatoms regarding their spatiotemporal distributions. Introducing MOTHUR: open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Uptake of dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds by phytoplankton and bacterioplankton. Planktonic forams appeared ~200 million years ago. Meanwhile, the weak seasonal difference of diatom communities in sediment may be ascribed to the majority of benthic diatoms (Additional file 1: Figure S6) that weakly respond to seasonal changes and reached a state of relative equilibrium through long-term sediment erosion and deposition processes [30]. The triplicate DNA extracts were mixed together for later PCR amplification. PubMed  2002;57:47–54 (in Chinese). Sci Total Environ. Article  Nat Rev Microbiol. 3c). Finally, the CO2 partial pressure was measured using a gas chromatograph equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. The influence of organisms on the composition of seawater. 2016;7:1474. Similar findings have also been reported recently on bacterial communities. In view of their relative abundance, planktonic diatoms were characterized by Psammothidium, Nitzschia, and Cymbella for steep slope environments, Papiliocellulus for moderate slope, Mayamaea, Pinnularia, and Surirella for mild slope environments. Obvious difference in species composition was observed in planktonic and benthic diatoms. As adjectives the difference between planktonic and benthic is that planktonic is of or pertaining to plankton while benthic is pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Planktonic diatoms were dominated by Coscinodiscophyceae (about 43.76% of the total number of sequences) and Mediophyceae (17.91%), while benthic diatoms were dominated by Bacillariophyceae (54.88%) and Coscinodiscophyceae (30.96%) (Additional file 1: Figure S8). [18] investigated the community structure of benthic diatoms in the Dong River, one of the three main tributaries of the Pearl River, China. 835 Motueka Integrated Catchment Management Programme Report Series: Benthic and planktonic microalgae in Tasman Bay June 2003 … Moreover, water temperature is a key environmental factor in structuring diatom community assemblages through its influence on diatom size and growth rate [37] in the Yangtze River (Additional file 1: Table S3). 40, Chemical ecology in aquatic systems, Guest Editors: Francesca Gherardi & Roberto Berti, pp. Field investigation on river hydrochemical characteristics and larval and juvenile fish in the source region of the Yangtze River. The spatial distribution of TN:TP in water and sediment samples varied in different sampling stations. Google Scholar. Cookies policy. Ann Arbor, Michigan; 1983. Forams are lumped into two groups: benthic foraminifera that live on the sea floor, and planktonic foraminifera that live suspended in the water column. Partial canonical correspondence analysis (pCCA) was performed to decompose the total variation in diatom community into a pure environmental component, a pure spatial component, a spatially structured environmental component, and residual variation. In general, the varying channel slope along the Yangtze River could be simplified into three stages, steep slope in mountainous reaches, moderate slope in upper reaches, and mild slope in middle-lower reaches (Fig. Furthermore, slope effects on diatoms might be identified in terms of ecological guilds. In the Yangtze River, diatoms mainly consisted of Coscinodiscophyceae, Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Mediophycea. Diatom Res. 2013;69:47–57. Then, PAR along the Yangtze River could be further derived. Moreover, Chen et al. Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Second, the richness of planktonic diatoms appeared to fluctuate with PAR, whereas the richness of benthic diatoms tended to change with … Planktonic GPP increased with nutrients status, whereas benthic GPP decreased. PubMed Central  Protist. Field CB, Behrenfeld MJ, Randerson JT, Falkowski P. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling diagram of Bray-Curtis dissimilarities between diatom communities for all samples. Orange and blue circles display the average alpha-diversity (Chao1) of planktonic and benthic diatoms respectively in different photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) regions, and their sizes correspond to the Chao1 index (c). 3c). Protist. From shore to 10 m depth, autotrophic structure shifted from planktonic dominance near the mouth of the Fox River (95% planktonic) to a mix of benthic and planktonic GPP 35 km from the mouth of the Fox (∼40% benthic). Dissolved CO2 was extracted by transferring 25 ml of ultra-high purity nitrogen at the field sites and then equilibrated with the headspace in the sample syringe by vigorous shake for 5 min. 4A). Graf WL. Spatial factors contribute to benthic diatom structure in streams across spatial scales: considerations for biomonitoring. FastTree 2 - approximately maximum-likelihood trees for large alignments. Furthermore, a number of indicator species belonging to Tabellariales and Hemiaulales occurred in water-plateau and sediment-plateau samples, respectively. (Bacillariophyceae) in a shallow river and estimation of effective suppression flows. Google Scholar. Adaptor was ligated onto the amplicons for the library construction. Benthic diatoms in the motile guild prevailed at most stations along the whole river, whereas those in high-profile and planktic guilds dominated upstream and downstream reaches, respectively. Flowchart of the study. Planktonic is an antonym of benthic. Namely, as river channel deepens, the number of planktonic diatoms from detached benthic algae and benthic diatoms from sinking planktonic algae will reduce, resulting a dominant position of primary production by planktonic algae [45]. Phycologia. Damming has been shown to cause various changes in hydraulic conditions [48,49,50], such as sediment erosion, deepening river channel, coarse riverbed, and high-suspended particles, which makes the downstream sediments become a habitat with limited light, difficult to adhere, and unsuitable for benthic diatoms to thrive (Additional file 1: Figure S15). Rimet F. Benthic diatom assemblages and their correspondence with ecoregional classifications: case study of rivers in North-Eastern France. Monteith JL. Furthermore, the monitored TN:TP was significantly related to community composition of diatoms in both water and sediment (P < 0.05, Additional file 1: Table S3). Then, the selected OTUs were checked by means of the phylogenetic tree, and only OTUs with correct taxonomical assignment were retained for further analysis. Kheiri S, Solak CN, Edlund MB, Spaulding S, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, et al. Of these, 40 species are planktonic, that is they float in the water. Google Scholar. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. Privacy Monteith reported the linear correlation between net primary production (NPP) and PAR absorbed by green foliage [81]. Distance-decay relationships between community similarity and geographic distance for water (a) and sediment (b) samples. 2001;41:77–91. Phylogenetic distribution of reference sequence and abundant OTUs. Our study revealed that benthic diatoms represented by motile species in ecological guilds are typical consequences driven by environmental selection in a lotic-oligotrophic river, which highlights the particular importance of benthic diatoms in understanding biogeochemical cycles in world’s large river ecosystems. Jinren Ni. PCR mixtures (20 μL volume) were prepared in triplicate contained 2 μL of 10 × buffer, 2 μL of 2.5 mM dNTPs, 0.8 μL of each primer (5 μM), 0.2 μL of rTaq polymerase, 0.2 μL of BSA, and 1 μL of 10 ng DNA sample. NMDS and ANOSIM statistics were carried out using the vegan package in R. The linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) [36] was used with Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests to discover high-dimensional biomarker and explain taxa difference at different environment conditions of PAR or channel slope. Berthon V, Bouchez A, Rimet F. Using diatom life-forms and ecological guilds to assess organic pollution and trophic level in rivers: a case study of rivers in south-eastern France. PLoS One. Figure S14. Similarly, different colored ribbons of different width for each sample type describe the distribution of different genera. 2015;755:89–105. Planktic/planktonic, nektic/nektonic, benthic/benthonic - Volume 65 Issue 2 - Cesare Emiliani Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Article  Figure S13. In the upper reaches (stations 3~14), the channel slope has dropped sharply to 10–30 × 10−5. Zimmermann J, Glöckner G, Jahn R, Enke N, Gemeinholzer B. Metabarcoding vs. morphological identification to assess diatom diversity in environmental studies. statement and Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis of the compositional dissimilarities between diatom communities demonstrated not only a clear spatial differentiation in diatoms between the plateau and the main body of the Yangtze, but also a division between planktonic and benthic groups (Additional file 1: Figure S4). 2015;49:7597–605. Only the dominant genus with a mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in all samples is depicted. Visco JA, Apotheloz-Perret-Gentil L, Cordonier A, Esling P, Pillet L, Pawlowski J. Benthic (adjective) Pertaining to the benthos; living on the seafloor, as opposed to floating in the ocean. Gillett N, Pan Y, Parker C. Should only live diatoms be used in the bioassessment of small mountain streams? To identify taxonomically OTUs obtained in this study against known diatom species, the BLASTN [75] program was applied to align clean 18S rRNA reads to the corrected diatom database.

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